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Techie Magazine 2012

  • Written by Alages IT
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Windows OS Code Names

Microsoft codenames are the codenames given by Microsoft to products it has in development, before these products are given the names by which they appear on store shelves. Many of these products (new versions ofWindows in particular) are of major significance to the IT community, and so the terms are often widely used in discussions prior to the official release

 
 Microsoft usually does not announce a final name until shortly before the product is publicly available.There has been some suggestion that Microsoft may move towards defining the real name of their upcoming products earlier in the product development lifecycle so as to avoid needing product codenames

Main Windows OS’s And Their Codenames
 
Windows 3.1

Windows 3.1, a successor to Windows 3.0 started the whole Windows series of OS’s. Released in March 1992.

Codename: Janus

Windows For Workgroups 3.1
Windows For Workgroups 3.1 is an extension for Windows 3.1. The extension was mainly for sharing resources for people who did not have centralized authentication server. It would use Server Message Block protocols over NetBios.


Codename: Kato, Sparta

Windows 95
Windows 95 was the Windows OS to have a graphical user interface. It was a large progression from Window 3.1. Windows 95 was first released on August 24, 1995.


Codename: Chicago

“Windows 96″
“Windows 96″ was never really released, it was simply a desktop update with Internet Explorer 4.0 included.


Codename: Nashville

Windows 98
Windows 98 was the successor to Windows 95. The code name was a clue to activate a easter egg! Windows 98 was released on 25 June 1998.


Codename: Memphis
 

Windows 2000
Windows 2000 is a successor to NT 4.0, and was succeeded by Windows XP, first released February 17, 2000.


Codename: Odyssey

Windows Me
Me stands for Millenium Edition, this is because was released in 2000, 14 September 2000 to be precise. It was shipped with Internet Explorer 5.5. It had the simular graphical user interface compared to most Windows 9X’s.


Codename: Georgia

Windows XP
XP is short for Experience, successor to both 2000 AND ME editions ofWindows. Another big progression, Windows XP features new graphical user interface compared with Windows 9X editions. Windows XP was first released on October 25, 2001.


Codename: Whistler
Codename, SP1: Trainyard
Codename, SP2: Springboard


Windows Media Center Edition, 2003, 2004, 2005
The initial release was shipped with computers which had media center capabilities and could not be sold seperatly. The main feature is Media Center which allows you to do things like, view live TV, DVD playback. 2005 edition had capabilites with thw Xbox 360 and media center extender.


Codename: eHome
Codename, 2003: Freestyle
Codename, 2004: Harmony
Codename, 2005: Symphony

Windows XP Tablet PC Edition 2005
Same as original XP with touch screen technology and handwriting software.


Codename: Lone Star

Windows Server 2003, Small business server, Home server, Windows Server 2008
Server operating system for handling administrative tasks for severs.


Codename, 2003: Whistler Server
Codename, Small business server: Bobcat
Codename, Home Server: Q, Quattro
Codename, 2008: Longhorn Server

Windows Vista
New graphical user interface and visual style called Windows Aero – (transparent glass effect theme). First released January 30, 2007.

Codename: Longhorn
Windows 7
Yet another improvment to the graphical user interface and visual styles. Expected release date October 22, 2009 – (not accurate)


Codename: Blackcomb, Vienna
 
 
 
~~~Alges IT
  • Written by pritima
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NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS IN INDIA

NUCLEAR POWER STATIONS IN INDIA

As of : June, 2012

POWER STATION LOCATION REACTORS CAPACITY CAPACITY REACHED ON YEAR
Madras Atomic Power station Kalpakkam, Kancheepuram
Tamilnadu
2 x 170 MW 340 MW 1986
Narora Atomic power station Narora, Bulandshahr
Uttar pradesh
2 x 220 MW 440 MW 1992
Kakrapar Atomic Power station Kakrapar, Surat
Gujarat
2 x 220 440 MW 1995
Rajasthan Atomic power station Rawatbhata, chittorgarh
Rajasthan
1 x 100 MW, 1 x 200 MW, 4 x 220 MW 1180 MW 2000
Tarapur Atomic Power station Tarapur, Thane
Maharashtra
2 x 160 MW, 2 x 540 MW 1400 MW 2006
Kaiga Nuclear Power Plant Kaiga, Uttara Kannada
Karnataka
4 x 220 MW 880 MW 2011
Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant Kudankulam, Tirunelveli
Tamilnadu
2 x 1000 MW (under construction)   2012 ?


 

  • Written by Devi
  • Hits: 1588

Making a Great First Impression

Getting off to a Good Start
It takes just a quick glance, maybe three seconds, for someone to evaluate you when you meet for the first time. In this short time, the other person forms an opinion about you based on your appearance, your body language, your demeanor, your mannerisms, and how you are dressed.With every new encounter, you are evaluated and yet another person's impression of you is formed. These first impression can be nearly impossible to reverse or undo, making those first encounters extremely important, for they set the tone for all the relationships that follows.So, whether they are in your career or social life, it's important to know how to create a good first impression.

Some Useful steps:


Be on Time: Someone you are meeting for the first time is not interested in your "good excuse" for running late. Plan to arrive a few minutes early. And allow flexibility for possible delays in traffic or taking a wrong turn. Arriving early is much better that arriving late, hands down, and is the first step in creating a great first impression


Be Yourself, Be at Ease:If you are feeling uncomfortable and on edge, this can make the other person ill at ease and that's a sure way to create the wrong impression. If you are calm and confident, so the other person will feel more at ease, and so have a solid foundation for making that first impression a good one


Present Yourself Appropriately: Of course physical appearance matters. The person you are meeting for the first time does not know you and your appearance is usually the first clue he or she has to go on.
But it certainly does not mean you need to look like a model to create a strong and positive first impression.


Start with the way you dress: What is the appropriate dress for the meeting or occasion? In a business setting, what is the appropriate business attire? Suit, blazer, casual? And ask yourself what the person you'll be meeting is likely to wear

For business and social meetings, appropriate dress also varies between countries and cultures, so it's something that you should pay particular attention to when in an unfamiliar setting or country. Make sure you know the traditions and norms.

And what about your grooming? Clean and tidy appearance is appropriate for most business and social occasions. A good haircut or shave. Clean and tidy clothes. Neat and tidy make up. Make sure your grooming is appropriate and helps make you feel "the part".

Appropriate dressing and grooming help make a good first impression and also help you feel "the part," and so feel more calm and confident. Add all of this up and you are well on your way to creating a good first impression.


A Word About Individuality
: The good news is you can usually create a good impression without total conformity or losing your individuality. Yes, to make a good first impression you do need to "fit in" to some degree. But it all goes back to being appropriate for the situation. If in a business setting, wear appropriate business attire. If at a formal evening social event, wear appropriate evening attire. And express your individuality appropriately within that context.


Be Positive :Your attitude shows through in everything you do. Project a positive attitude, even in the face of criticism or in the case of nervousness. Strive to learn from your meeting and to contribute appropriately, maintaining an upbeat manner and a smile.


Be Courteous and Attentive
:It goes without saying that good manners and polite, attentive and courteous behavior help make a good first impression. In fact, anything less can ruin the one chance you have at making that first impression. So be on your best behavior!
One modern manner worth mentioning is "turn off your mobile phone." What first impression will you create if you are already speaking to someone other than the person you are meeting for the first time? Your new acquaintance deserves 100 percent of your attention. Anything less and you'll create a less than good first impression.

Key Points:
You have just a few seconds to make a good first impression and it's almost impossible ever to change it. So it's worth giving each new encounter your best shot.
Much of what you need to do to make a good impression is common sense. But with a little extra thought and preparation, you can hone your intuitive style and make every first impression not just good but great.
 

  • Written by Devi
  • Hits: 1302

Emotional Intelligence

Developing strong "people skills"


What is Emotional Intelligence?

We all have different personalities, different wants and needs, and different ways of showing our emotions. Navigating through this all takes tact and cleverness – especially if we hope to succeed in life. This is where emotional intelligence becomes important.

Emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize your emotions, understand what they're telling you, and realize how your emotions affect people around you. Emotional intelligence also involves your perception of others: when you understand how they feel, this allows you to manage relationships more effectively.

People with high emotional intelligence are usually successful in most things they do. Why? Because they're the ones that others want on their team. When people with high EI send an email, it gets answered. When they need help, they get it. Because they make others feel good, they go through life much more easily than people who are easily angered or upset.
Characteristics of Emotional Intelligence

Daniel Goleman, an American psychologist, developed a framework of five elements that define emotional intelligence:

Self-Awareness – People with high emotional intelligence are usually very self-aware. They understand their emotions, and because of this, they don't let their feelings rule them. They're confident – because they trust their intuition and don't let their emotions get out of control.

They're also willing to take an honest look at themselves. They know their strengths and weaknesses, and they work on these areas so they can perform better. Many people believe that this self-awareness is the most important part of emotional intelligence.


Self-Regulation – This is the ability to control emotions and impulses. People who self-regulate typically don't allow themselves to become too angry or jealous, and they don't make impulsive, careless decisions. They think before they act. Characteristics of self-regulation are thoughtfulness, comfort with change, integrity, and the ability to say no.


Motivation – People with a high degree of emotional intelligence are usually motivated. They're willing to defer immediate results for long-term success. They're highly productive, love a challenge, and are very effective in whatever they do.


Empathy
– This is perhaps the second-most important element of emotional intelligence. Empathy is the ability to identify with and understand the wants, needs, and viewpoints of those around you. People with empathy are good at recognizing the feelings of others, even when those feelings may not be obvious. As a result, empathetic people are usually excellent at managing relationships, listening, and relating to others. They avoid stereotyping and judging too quickly, and they live their lives in a very open, honest way.


Social Skills
– It's usually easy to talk to and like people with good social skills, another sign of high emotional intelligence. Those with strong social skills are typically team players. Rather than focus on their own success first, they help others develop and shine. They can manage disputes, are excellent communicators, and are masters at building and maintaining relationships.

As you've probably determined, emotional intelligence can be a key to success in your life – especially in your career. The ability to manage people and relationships is very important in all leaders, so developing and using your emotional intelligence can be a good way to show others the leader inside of you


Tips to improve you Emotional Intelligence:

  • Observe how you react to people.
  • Look at your work environment
  • Do a self-evaluation
  • Examine how you react to stressful situations.
  • Take responsibility for your actions
  • Examine how your actions will affect others

Key Points

Although "regular" intelligence is important to success in life, emotional intelligence is key to relating well to others and achieving your goals. Many people believe that emotional intelligence is at least as important as regular intelligence, and many companies now use EI testing to hire new staff.

Emotional intelligence is an awareness of your actions and feelings – and how they affect those around you. It also means that you value others, listen to their wants and needs, and are able to empathize or identify with them on many different levels.

The good news is that emotional intelligence CAN be taught and developed. Many books and tests are available to help you determine your current EI, and identify where you may need to do some work.

Let us all try to develop this Emotional Intelligence and taste the success in our life and make the world a beautiful place to live.


 


  • Written by Devi
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The Purpose of Patience

Are you wondering why patience is a virtue? Here are five reasons why patience is important.

We have forgotten the importance of patience in our modern world. Frequently we get frustrated when the internet fails to load quick enough. Often we are angry when a driver is going the speed limit. More often than not we get irritated when our children need attention. Do you want more patience but lack motivation? Inspired by M.J. Ryan's book, The Power of Patience, here are five reasons why patience is essential.

Turns Talent into Achievement
Patience is required to develop talent. M.J. Ryan concludes that, "Anything that we could potentially become good at requires that we dedicate ourselves to long effort" (2003, p.20). To overcome challenges on the road to excellence, we need patience. Have more patience and you will more easily achieve your dreams.
Do you have an important dream but become impatient by what it takes to achieve it? Write your goal down and break it down into mini steps. Set dates to achieve each step and start the first step. This methodical approach will help you develop patience and help you achieve your goal more quickly.

Benefits Relationships

Relationships require you to understand and respect other people's needs. Patience is the foundation of a good relationship whether with your partner, friends or children. Often we get irritated by the smallest things. We become defensive, lash out and hurt someone's feelings. Patience helps us accept other people's differences. It reminds us to be tolerant.
Is there one relationship where you could be more patient? Brainstorm ways to diffuse irritation and anger. For example, when you feel yourself getting defensive, mentally list all the good qualities of the other person. Picture yourself showing appreciation for this person.

Creates Better Health

According to M.J. Ryan, anger and stress contribute to poor health. She states that, "Research demonstrates that angry folks are one and a half times more likely to get cancer than others and have a four to five times higher risk of heart disease" (2003, p.33). Patience is an antidote to anger and stress. Patience helps us be more tolerant of others and to become more flexible in the face of life's challenge.
Examine the degree to which you get angry or stressed. What ways can you cope with the challenges of life without exacting a toll on your body? There are many physical, social and self-care activities to help uplift and clear tension. Make a list of five activities and try to schedule more of them.

Builds Empathy

Patience helps us bridge the gap between ourselves and others. It helps understand and empathize with others. Without patience we would get irritated by the baby crying on the airplane, by the elderly person driving cautiously on the freeway or by the child talking loudly in the movie theater. With patience we allow people to be who they are.
What is one situation that leaves you frustrated and irritated? Next time that situation happens try to see it from the other person's point of view. How does this change your experience? Remember impatience causes you to suffer as well as other people.

Navigate Life Challenges

Our lives have ups and downs. During the valleys, we often become impatient when life isn't going our way. Maybe we got turned down for a job we really wanted, have gained fifteen pounds or had a financial setback. We become irritated and unhappy. We want things to be different.
Can you reframe one situation to see it in a positive light? Can you find the open door rather than focus on the closed one? Take five minutes to list all the good from a supposedly negative experience. Each time you feel yourself dwell on the negative, try to change your thinking.

Patience is essential to becoming a happier and healthier person. If patience isn't your strong suit, don't worry. Like a muscle, patience can be strengthened. The previous five exercises can help you become a more patient person

 

  • Written by ANAND P
  • Hits: 2803

Failure Is Not A Bad Word

If the world would look at each one of us and ask us a question - "Are you a success or failure?" Would that intimidate you? What would be your response?

Today being successful is one of the highest priorities, whether you are a school kid or a steel tycoon. Our lifestyle seems to focus so much on success and achievement. There are innumerable success courses, seminars, workshops, mind training programs etc, that promise to launch us in to the trajectory of success and these things are wonderful!

Now, the issue at hand is - What is our stand on failures? Where do failures fall in our lives? Are failures totally worthless?

People who are failures, according to the world's standard, do not get to have the warm reception that only winners seem to enjoy. Of course that is understandable. But is it only the warm reception that is important here or something more?

At this instant it would do all of us a lot of good to think about this - Somebody said, "No one is a failure; it is just their experience." But many unfortunately seem to be roped into the bandwagon of 'success chasing'.

Psychologists, working with students, say from the time when a child enters school, he/she tends to get impressed with the idea that success is the means to be respected and have a meaningful existence; to say it in simple terms: Success is 'the only way' to have a fulfilled life.

How then would we look at failures with the prevalent notion is that "Only winning is worthwhile and only winners are remembered?" Would it be unwise on our part to say that there is a general misrepresentation of failures in life?

How many times do parents treat their children harshly for having a setback either in academic/sports/personal behavior? Denis Waitely said, "There are no mistakes or failures only lessons."

How many teachers teach children and young minds that failure equally ennobles us as success? How many of them teach that it is not failing but staying stagnant and not endeavoring to advance, that wanes and wastes us?

Everyone agrees that failures teach us humility, keep us from becoming arrogant and teach us perseverance. But when it comes to experiencing them personally, almost all of us cringe and balk. Why?

An Indian writer once wrote, "When failures teach us more lessons than success, shouldn't failures be celebrated more?"

There is a lot of insight in that statement. Yes!!! Failures really are so important in our lives. Failures are the things that make success enjoyable and worthy. Only thirst makes us realize the worth of water. It is the same with hunger and food. If it is true of these natural physical phenomena and things, then success (which is also 'natural' because the drive to succeed is in everyone) too amounts to any worth only if one experiences the presence of failure.

Norman Vincent Peale observes in one of his books that a person who is getting 'C' grades in college need not feel inferior/low for who knows, his real 'A's in life might start coming in when he qualifies and steps out of his college.

So true! The world has many such success stories; stories of people who went on to make millions after the age when most of the people would retire; stories of people who invented when they were quite old. History is emblazoned with instances where a person, condemned as a failure, became unstoppable and rose to supremacy, before the eyes of the very same people who stamped and sealed him as failure.

What should make us think that we are... done for... we are doomed... we are failures? Hence, we ought to stop trying to shun away failures or keep ourselves oblivious of our failures. People say that the more you loathe failures the more they irk you.

Have you ever looked at a stone on top of a mountain? Does it have failures? No! Is it alive? A big no! Only a living being can have failures. Failures are a signs of life. Failures are absolutely essential for each one of us.

So the best way to tackle failures is to adorn our lips with a wonderful smile and tell ourselves, "Hello! Be glad you have failures in life. If there were no failures, there would be no lessons and no real achievement can ever come without lessons."

The most important thing that each of us has to do is to be 'kind to ourselves' when we fail, instead of 'judging ourselves' and wallowing in self-pity; let us rethink our philosophy of success.

Of course failure has its own pain and no one can deny that. But it is like the pain that comes out of exercise that makes one fit. It is worth repeating what someone said - Anything that doesn't kill you makes you stronger. Hence, instead of thinking failures are final, let us rejoice that we have another lesson to learn.

Who on earth would be ungrateful to a person for a favor done? Failures do the same to us. They help us in so many ways. Why not be grateful for our failures? Now I am not being so superficial to say that we need not feel pain. It is just that we need to accept pain as willingly as we would when we receive help from someone.

What would be our answer if someone asked us this question:
"Have you celebrated your recent failure?"

This might seem an insane question to many but truly there is lot in it for us to meditate. Basically we have to learn to gladly accept, not gruntingly call in, failures if they make their presence at our doorstep.

Now this doesn't mean that we go around making failure a thing of pride but, learn to keep failures in proper perspective so that they serve us instead of cut us. If we make friends with failures, be it personal or beyond, we truly don't have any enemies. It also doesn't mean we go jumping around because we failed. We need to handle them with poise and thankfulness because we learn from them too.

The Bible records instances where people who experienced failures finally ended as successes because they calmly accepted their failures and lived by what they said vis-a-vis 'We are hard pressed on every side, but not crushed; perplexed, but not in despair.'

If only we will recognize the importance of failures in our lives, we would not be so against them. We would even be thankful sometimes that they came our way. Now think about this - "True success rests not in the basking while succeeding, but in the sereneness of a man to throw a party after hitting rock bottom". Hence let us celebrate our failures and calibrate our lives to success!

  • Written by ANAND P
  • Hits: 2343

Surviving Last Minute Preparations

With the arrival of summer, exams beleaguer students and they arm themselves with the right study material to score high grades. While most students are tensed during the season, others are seen remarkably chilled. It's not that such students take exams for granted, they just have a positive approach and understand that exams are not meant to catch them out. Exams assess how well students comprehend the subject matter.

Being stressed during the exams is common for students and many while away their time worrying about the exams instead of focusing on studies. It's very important to take breaks between studies - one can take a walk in the park, watch some TV, play a sport or anything that helps him unwind. A great means for beating the stress is talking to a friend. Since the friend is going through the same patch, talking to him has quite a therapeutic effect on an individual.

Worrying about the progress one is making only disturbs the mind and the student is unable to concentrate on his studies. Therefore, one must stay calm and try some techniques that help them prepare for their exams under the wire.

making notes is the most effective and common form of preparing for exams. Notes made during the class and/or in private tuition are extremely valuable and one must go through them a day before the exam. As compared to books, notes are always written in an individual's personal style which makes them easier to understand and memorize. If one is having a hard time memorizing anything in particular, he should highlight that part with colored markers so as to remember going through it everyday.

A smaller version of notes, flashcards are another excellent way of memorizing important parts of a subject. Flashcards only include certain keywords, bullet points and formulas that trigger the memory to recall the particular subject notes. Keeping them short is the way to go. Also, it's utmost important that one has a practice exam session which helps him get a feedback of how he performs. A student should solve sample question papers from previous exams in the same format and time himself. It will certainly tell him where he stands and if there is any gap, he can start it from the scratch.

Apart from that, group study is also an advantageous technique as it pushes students to study more. In addition to that, they can test one another on different topics each one is weak in. The best thing about group studies is that when the students come across a hard topic, they can better tackle it as a group. However, students have to be sure that they study and not have fun and entertainment.

  • Written by ANAND P
  • Hits: 2258

The Story of the Butterfly

A man found a cocoon of a butterfly.
One day a small opening appeared.
He sat and watched the butterfly for several hours
as it struggled to squeeze its body through the tiny hole.
Then it stopped, as if it couldn’t go further.

Butterfly
So the man decided to help the butterfly.
He took a pair of scissors and
snipped off the remaining bits of cocoon.
The butterfly emerged easily but
it had a swollen body and shriveled wings.

The man continued to watch it,
expecting that any minute the wings would enlarge
and expand enough to support the body,
Neither happened!
In fact the butterfly spent the rest of its life
crawling around.
It was never able to fly.

What the man in his kindness
and haste did not understand:
The restricting cocoon and the struggle
required by the butterfly to get through the opening
was a way of forcing the fluid from the body
into the wings so that it would be ready
for flight once that was achieved.

Sometimes struggles are exactly
what we need in our lives.
Going through life with no obstacles would cripple us.
We will not be as strong as we could have been
and we would never fly.

  • Written by Alages IT
  • Hits: 2469

Ubuntu 12.04 Review

Ubuntu 12.04 (Precise Pangolin) is out now.


pangolin, scaly anteater, or trenggiling, is a mammal of the order Pholidota. The only one extant family (Manidae) has one genus (Manis) of pangolins, comprising eight species.
There are also a number of extinct taxa. Pangolins have large keratin scales covering their skin and are the only mammals with this adaptation.[2] They are found in tropical regions of Africa
and Asia. The name “pangolin” derives from the Malay word pengguling (“something that rolls up”).Pangolins are nocturnal animals, and use their well-developed sense of smell to find insects. The long-tailed pangolin is also active by day. Pangolins spend most of the daytime sleeping, curled up into a ball.

 



How the whimsical naming scheme of Mark Shuttleworth managed to dodge adding a P-adjective to 'Penguin', we’ll never know. As founder of Canonical, the commercial company behind Ubuntu, it’s Shuttleworth who pulls these names from his imaginative hat.
Ubuntu has employed animal codenames since it was launched as the friendly face of desktop Linux in 2004. Then starting with Ubuntu 6.06, the convention has run alphabetically, including such classics as Hardy Heron and, our favourite moniker, Maverick Meerkat. Read more reviews of operating systems.
It’s a neat way to keep a versioning history in the OS name. More recently Google has magpied this idea of alphabet increments with its confectionery-themed Android updates.
But this year’s long-term support (LTS) release of Ubuntu – Ubuntu 12.04 – has settled on Precise Pangolin.


What’s New In This Release
Here’s a sample of the new features in this release:
 

  • HUD
  • Video Lens
  • Linux Kernel 3.2.14
  • Rhythymbox is the default music player
  • GNOME 3.41
  • Quicklist support added to Unity
  • LibreOffice 3.5.2
  • Software Center improvements
  • Ubuntu One gets a Control Panel

The HUD is an alternative to clicking around on menu items when you want to do something. Just hit the ALT key and you can start typing in a search term related to whatever it is you want to do. If you’re a dedicated mouse clicker, this might seem a bit slower than just clicking an icon. Once you get used to doing it, you will find that it can be much faster. Keyboard junkies will revel in it right from the start though, they’ll get to skip farting around in menus completely.

To use the Video Lens, just click the Dash icon then click on the video icon at the bottom. Or just access the video lens via the quicklist on the Dash icon. This lens will be a huge help to anybody who keeps many videos on their Ubuntu systems. You can also get online search results for your video searches for sites like YouTube, etc. For example, I did a search on the term “how to skin a squirrel” and got back a bunch of results from YouTube.

The HUD and the Video Lens are the two most notable new features in this release. But some of the other things are worth noting as well.
The Nautilus quicklist support makes it very easy to hop around to Documents, Downloads, Music, Pictures or Videos. You can also open a new window or hop to your Home folder.
The switch to Rythymbox will please some and displease others. If you prefer to use something else, you’ll find alternatives in the Ubuntu Software Center.
The Software Center has gotten some improvements. I’ll cover those in the software section on the next page.
Ubuntu One has a new control panel that adds an installer, folder & sync management, and a setup wizard.

 


 

  • Written by sherlley
  • Hits: 1511

Corporate Etiquette

"Your manners are always under examination, and by committees little suspected, awarding or denying you very high prizes when you least think of it", Ralph Waldo Emerson.

When a person gets into employment for the first time he gets confused with the corporate culture and finds it very difficult to learn the corporate etiquette which is otherwise also known as business etiquette. There will be vast cultural gaps from the background from where the individual has come and that of the organization he enters. He finds it very difficult to get along with new cultures, customs, norms and rules. There would certainly be a gap. It takes certain time to get adjusted and adapted to the corporate culture and learn the etiquette.

Every one knows the meaning of etiquette. Etiquette is nothing but manners to be followed in a given cultural environment. Every culture has its own etiquette. But overall the etiquette is universal with certain characteristics and qualifications that run across all people like a common thread. Business etiquette is also an etiquette that has to be adopted in every business keeping ethics and integrity in view. It varies from culture to culture and from country to country and from industry to industry. All the differences are only superficial in nature with the commonalities of basic business etiquette being at the core level.

Etiquettes are of different types. It is desirable to focus on a few basic etiquettes which collectively constitute the corporate etiquette. They are Hand shake, Interview etiquette, Mobile etiquette, Telephone etiquette, Office etiquette, Dress code, Giving business card, Dining etiquette, Handling people, International business etiquette, Email etiquette, etc.,

HANDSHAKE:
When two men meet each other they shake their hands as a symbol and sign of meeting. There is a right manner in handshake. There has to be firm handshake that represents the confidence level of the persons. If a person presses down the palm of the other person and shakes his hand it indicates that the person is dominant in nature. On the other hand, if the person allows his own palm pressed downwards and lets the other person's palm upwards it indicates the submissive style of the person. In the third scenario if both the persons keep their palms perpendicular to the ground and if both persons plays neutral neither being in the dominant level nor in the submissive level then it is the right method of handshake and it indicates win-win or assertive handshake. A person's nature can be easily judged by the way he shakes his hand with others. It becomes the core part of any corporate culture.

INTERVIEW ETIQUETTE:
When going for an interview, the door is to be knocked, and after seeking the permission the person should enter the interview room. The person should greet the interview panel member like 'Good morning Sir/Sirs' depending upon the time of interview and wait for the permission to be seated. If there is a woman Interviewing Officer(IO) it is etiquette to greet her first followed by male members as it is part of the Indian culture to respect women.

After getting the permission to sit, the person should sit with straight posture at the back with his back touching the chair and without dragging the chair or dragging the feet. No attempts should be made either to lean forward or to lean too much backward or to sit in totally at an ease position. The person should sit straight and be alert by keeping both the legs together with both feet touching on the ground.

When the question is posed, the person should fully wait till the completion of the sentence by the IO and then reply. No attempts should be made to interrupt or interfere with the conversation of IO. After listening carefully the person should analyze, process with in his mind and then should reply appropriately with clear cut thoughts. In case if there are any differences of opinion, the same should be handled with tact and diplomacy. In case if there is a need to clarify anything, the same can be asked with a request to speak the same. After the completion of the interview, thank them and exit the room smartly without any unnecessary noise.

MOBILE ETIQUETTE:
Now days, mobiles have become both a boon and bane. Whenever there is an engagement or any hectic or important activities are going on, the mobile should be kept in a silent mode. It is not proper to talk over the phone when important discussion or meeting is in progress. After the completion of the meeting the calls can be attended as unattended calls are reflected in the handset. These days, marketing calls do come frequently and it disturbs the mood and also the precious time. These are known as unsolicited calls. The best thing is to cut short such calls by saying, 'I will get back to you' or 'Can I call you back?'

TELEPHONE ETIQUETTE:
It is more or less like mobile etiquette only. The caller has to identify himself first, and then should confirm whether he is looking for the concerned person and then should start conversation. Even if you are interrupted, exercise patience to the caller and respond. Radiate energy and if it is not possible, at least exercise warmth so that the caller feels comfortable and convenient to communicate. Do not keep the caller on hold without asking 'Say like, may I put you on a hold for a moment?' and then put the caller on hold till you connect the right person or to give the correct information. Personalize the conversation to make it polite and presentable. If the concerned person is not there and if the caller provides the information to pass on, then note down on a paper or a note pad, sign and make it accessible and reachable to the concerned person. Small things make major differences in telephone etiquette. Ensure that your voice mail system is working properly and is not full of messages to prevent incoming calls.

OFFICE ETIQUETTE:
When you visit to somebody's office, do no roam around as though it is your own office. When you are a stranger to a place maintain and behave like a visitor or as a guest not like a host. Do not disturb the receptionist with too many queries. When you are asked to work in your cubicle stick to that only and do not encroach into others' cubicles.

You can call person by name at the corporate world but politely. There is no need to call 'Sir' or 'Madam' frequently. The body language must be positive and assertive it should neither be aggressive nor submissive. While addressing a woman if it is not clear whether she is married or unmarried, you can use Ms as that can convey politely for both married and unmarried woman.

Personal space from person to person needs to be maintained properly. It is known as proxemics. You should not behave with unknown people by being too close by maintaining intimate distance as it creates discomfort for others.

DRESS CODE:
For men the shirt should be in light color with a tie. There should not be any cabbage socks. The socks need to be changed regularly. Avoid wearing white socks. The body can be applied with light perfume. It is essential to wear tie for formal meetings. A few companies have separate and specific dress code to its employees on specific days. There is a traditional formula for male attire. BBTTSS is the acronym for Boot and Belt which must be of the same color, Tie and Trouser should preferably match with each other and Shirt and Socks should match with each other. There is no hard and fast rule to accept this formula but it all depends on the situation and occasion. Ultimately the dress code should be pleasing, neat and clean and presentable.

Dress code for women is a very complicated one. It differs from region to region and from country to country based on their cultural background as well as their tastes and temperaments. They should not dress like a Christmas tree. There should not be any hanky panky costumes. Don't decorate with excessive jewellery or ornaments. The dress should match as per the corporate culture and values of the organization. The clothes must be positive and presentable and not of tight fittings, no obscene clothes or revealing clothes etc.

BUSINESS CARD:
When business card is given, it must be taken with the right hand in India. It must be read with details like name, designation and other details and then it should be kept in a visiting card holder. Always give fresh cards and do not give the cards that look dirty or old or faded cards.

DINING ETIQUETTE:

Wait for your host to ask you to sit or else sit after the host sits.

Keep solids of the food on the left and the liquids on the right side.

Keep the napkin folded towards you on your lap.

If you have any food allergies tell the same in advance or to the server and if it is already served leave it on the plate.

Don't fill your plate with entire food at one go. Fill little by little as you consume.

If you have any doubts regarding the starting of eating food or about the chronological order of eating food, observe your host closely and follow.

At the time of eating, keep the knife across the top of your plate when you are eating, blade facing towards you.

It is formal to leave some food on the plate at the end.

If you are a slow eater and the host has completed eating food, you leave the food and catch up with the host.

If the food is not good and if the host enquires how is the food, say politely, "Fine, thank you".

Once the meal is finished your silverware should be parallel to each other in the ten and four O clock position with handles at 4.00 and tops of the utensils at 10.00. The knife blade points towards you.

The amount is usually paid by the host.

Thank the host for your meal at the end.

HANDLING PEOPLE:

Every business person should learn basic etiquette to deal with people. Of course, there are number of written and unwritten rules and guidelines and when in doubt stick to the basic and follow.

Build good relations with peers and subordinates.

Never differentiate people based on designations and rank.

Memorize the names of the people. If not, then correlate the name of the person with that of your previous acquaintances with in your mind for effective retention. Make a good practice of collecting the names of the people with their phone numbers, date of birth, family details. This will help you to build strong relations with them.

Learn to appreciate people sincerely. If it is essential to criticize, do not attack the person rather attack his behavior as it takes the matter away from person-centric to problem-centric or behavior-centric.

Never surprise your boss. Always keep him informed about the work related activities and try to be in the good books of your boss.

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS ETIQUETTE:
With the rapid growing technology the globe has become smaller. As a result, there are plenty of opportunities since the communication has become easier. Employers began thinking broadly and are trying to set up their ventures at the global level. Along with that the employees have opportunities to work with the people across the globe.

It is necessary to know the basics of international etiquette such as the multicultural issues, different time zones, different workings hours, holiday patterns, table manner etc., Mr. Laxmi Niwas Mittal the global steel czar has clearly mentioned about the significance and importance of multicultural issues so as to succeed in the international business.

EMAIL ETIQUETTE:
Paper correspondence is gradually losing its relevance. In every business there is growing significance attached to Email and it is necessary to dwell at length about email etiquette in this context.

The subject matter should be simple, specific, short and identify yourself. It should not be like compound sentences. The receiver should be in a position to identify its source and the objective behind it. In the 'To' address column put the main addressee and if the same is to be informed to other addresses you can add those emails in the 'CC' column. It is usually considered unethical to use the BCC column. If the mail is not to be known to the other addressees and in extreme cases you can use 'BCC'.

Personalize the mail to create bonding with the reader. Dear Sir/Madam, followed by the name of the person with designation as it impresses the reader for the significance you have accorded to the designation and also for having made it personal.

Follow proper alignment and the margin on the left side. Write the contents in simple, straight and short manner. The contents must be concise, crisp and clear. Put across all the points. At the end, you may conclude with 'Regards', or 'Best regards', or 'With regards', or 'Best wishes' followed by your signature. Before sending check for grammar, syntax, sentence format, punctuation. Read and reread the email before hitting the 'send' button as it becomes an evidence for future records.

While replying to official mails do not check 'Reply all' button as the confidential information, if any, will be known to all. Never type the contents in capital letters as that indicates that you are shouting at others. And also avoid using lower case. As far as possible the business letter should not last more than a page as it is an official document. Do not visit pornographic sites as every company has an internal scanning system to check the same. And ultimately you will be in deep hot water. Try to use soft, polite and neutral words and avoid using unparliamentary language.

CONCLUSION:
Etiquette and business etiquette is essential to survive and succeed both at the personal and professional level. It has paramount significance and importance at the corporate world either to make or break the business deals. Therefore, it is mandatory to stick to the basics of all etiquettes to become a successful professional. To conclude, the business etiquette is essential from peon to principal and from employee to employer. (Source:http://www.articlesbase.com)

About the Author: (The author, Prof. M.S.Rao, is working as an Academic Guide in ICFAI University, India. He delivers 'Guest Lectures' upon request. He talks over radio and is a professional Writer and Trainer in soft skills, personality development, motivation, leadership and equity investments. He conducts training sessions to Corporates and Student community. Number of articles has been published in various global websites, magazines and journals. He has blog: http://profmsr.blogspot.com He can be reached at email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it., This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.).

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